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Home Education Mutants and Strains

References for Axolotl Genetics & Nomenclature


Armstrong, J.B. 1985. The axolotl mutants. Developmental Genetics 6:1-25.


Armstrong, J.B., L.L. Gillespie, and G. Cooper. 1983. Experimental studies on a lethal gene (t) in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Journal of Experimental Zoology 226:423-430.

Bagnara, J.T., S.K. Frost, and J. Matsumoto. 1978. On the development of pigment patterns in amphibians. American Zoologist 18:301-312.

Briggs, R. 1972. Further studies on the maternal effect of the o gene in the Mexican axolotl. Journal of Experimental Zoology 181:271-280.

Briggs, R. and F. Briggs. 1984. Discovery and initial characterization of a new conditional (temperature-sensitive) maternal effect mutation in the axolotl. Differentiation 26:176-181.

Briggs, R. and R.R. Humphrey. 1962. Studies on the maternal effect of the semilethal gene, v, in the Mexican axolotl. I. Influence of temperture on the expression of the effect. II. Cytological changes in the affected embryos. Developmental Biology 5:127-146.

Brun, R.B. 1978. Experimental analysis of the eyeless mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). American Zoologist 18:273-279.

Brun, R.B. 1990. In the Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) homozygous for the gene eyeless, unilateral neural fold rearrangements stimulate bilateral eye formation. Journal of Experimental Zoology 254:107-113. 
Go back to gene e.Brun, R.B. 1993.

Bilateral eye formation in the eyeless mutant Mexican salamander following unilateral, partial excision of neural fold tissues: a quantitative study. Journal of Experimental Zoology 265:541-548.

Bukowski,L., K Erickson, and T.A. Lyerla. 1990. Characterization of the yellow pigment in the axanthic mutant of the Mexican axolotl. Pigment Cell Research 3:123-125.

Callan, H.G. 1966. Chromosomes and nucleoli of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Journal of Cell Science 1:85-108.

Carroll, C.R. and E.B. Van Deusen. 1973. Experimental studies on a mutant gene (cl) in the Mexican axolotl which affects cell membrane formation in embryos from cl/cl females. Developmental Biology 32:155-166.

Chung, H.-M. and R. Briggs. 1975. Experimental studies on a lethal gene (l) in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Journal of Experimental Zoology 191:33-48.

Cooper, G.M., J.B. Armstrong, and S. Gottlob-McHugh. 1985. Allelic isozyme variants in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) as potential markers for developmental experiments. Developmental Genetics 5:73-82.

Cuny, R. and G.M. Malacinski. 1985. Banding differences between tiger salamander and axolotl chromosomes. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 27:510-514.Davis, L.A. and L.F. Lemanski. 1987. Induction of myofibrillogenesis in cardiac lethal mutant axolotl hearts rescued by RNA derived from normal endoderm. Development 99:145-154.

Dunson, W.A., R.K. Packer, and M.K. Dunson. 1971. Ion and water balance in normal and mutant fluid imbalanced (ff) embryos of the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 40A:319-337.

Eagleson, G.W. and G.M. Malacinski. 1986. a scanning electron microscopy and histological study on the effects of the mutant eyeless (e/e) gene upon the hupothalamus in the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw. Anatomical Record 215:317-327.

Epp, L.G. 1978. A review of the eyeless mutant in the Mexican axolotl. American Zoologist 18:267-272.

Epperlein, H.H. and J. Lofberg. 1993. The development of the neural crest in amphibians. Ann. Anat. 175:483-499.

Fankhauser, G. and R.R. Humphrey. 1942. Induction of triploidy and haploidy in axolotl eggs by cold treatment. Biological Bulletin 83:367-374.

Fransen, M.E. and L.F. Lemanski. 1988. Myocardial cell relationships during morphogenesis in normal and cardiac lethal mutant axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum. American Journal of Anatomy 183:245-257.

Fransen, M.E. and L.F. Lemanski. 1989. Studies of heart development in normal and cardiac lethal mutant axolotls: a review. Scanning Microscopy 3:1101-1116.

Frost, S.K. 1989. Pigmentation and color variants. In: J.B. Armstrong and G.M. Malacinski, eds., Developmental Biology of the Axolotl. Oxford, New York. pp. 119-131.

Frost, S.K., M. Borchert, and M.K. Carson. 1989. Drug-induced and genetic hypermelanism: effects on pigment cell differentiation. Pigment Cell Research 2:182-190.

Frost, S.K., L.G. Epp, and S. J. Robinson. 1984. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls II. An analysis of the melanoid phenotype. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 81:127-142.

Frost, S.K., L.G. Epp, and S.J. Robinson. 1986. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls. IV. an analysis of the axanthic phenotype. Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology 92:255-268.

Graveson, A.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1990. The premature death (p) mutation of Ambystoma mexicanum affects a subpopulation of neural crest cells. Differentiation 45:71-75.

Graveson, A.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1994. In vivo evidence that the premature death (p) mutation of Ambystoma mexicanum affects an early segregating subpopulation of neural crest cells. Journal of Experimental Zoology 269:327-335.

Gruberg, E.R. and W.A. Harris. 1981. The serotonergic somatosensory projection to the tectum of normal and eyeless salamanders. Journal of Morphology 170:55-69.

Harris, W.A. 1979. Amphibian chimeras and the nervous system. Soc. Neurosci. Symp. 4:228-257.

Harris, W.A. 1983. The eyeless axolotl: experimental embryogenetics and the development of the nervous system. Trends in NeuroSciences 6:505-510.

Harris, W.A. 1984. Axonal pathfinding in the absence of normal pathways and impulse activity. Journal of Neuroscience 4:1153-1162.

Hennen, S. 1977. Everything you wanted to know about creating a strain of axolotls carrying a tiger salamander gene but were afraid to ask. Axolotl Newsletter 3:1-2.

Humphrey, R.R. 1948. A lethal fluid imbalance in the Mexican axolotl. Journal of Heredity 39:255-261.

Humphrey, R.R. 1959. A linked gene determining the lethality usually accompanying a hereditary fluid imbalance in the Mexican axolotl. Journal of Heredity 50:279-286.

Humphrey, R.R. 1960. A maternal effect of a gene (f) for a fluid imbalance in the Mexican axolotl. Developmental Biology 2:105-128.

Humphrey, R.R. 1962. A semilethal factor (v) in the Mexican axolotl (Siredon mexicanum) and its maternal effect. Developmental Biology 4:423-451.

Humphrey, R.R. 1964. Genetic and experimental studies on a lethal factor (r) in the axolotl which induces abnormalities in the renal system and other organs. Journal of Experimental Zoology 155:139-150.

Humphrey, R.R. 1966. A recessive factor (o, for ova deficient) determining a complex of abnormalities in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).Humphrey, R.R. 1967a. Albino axolotls from an albino tiger salamander through hybridization. Journal of Heredity 58:95-101.

Humphrey, R.R. 1967b. Genetic and experimental studies on a lethal trait ("short toes") in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Journal of Experimental Zoology 164:281-295.

Humphrey, R.R. 1969. A recently discovered mutant, "eyeless," in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Anatomical Record 163:306.

Humphrey, R.R. 1972. Genetic and experimental studies of a mutant gene (c) determining absence of heart action in embryos of the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Developmental Biology 27:365-375.

Humphrey, R.R. 1973. Experimental studies on a new lethal trait in Mexican axolotls of the Wistar

Humphrey, R.R. 1975. The axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. In: R.C. King, ed. Handbook of Genetics. Plenum Press, New York. pp. 3-18.

Humphrey, R.R. 1977. A lethal mutant gene in the Mexican axolotl. Journal of Heredity 68:407-408.

Humphrey, R.R. 1978. The axolotl colony at Indiana University. Axolotl Newsletter 1:3-8.

Humphrey, R.R. and J.T. Bagnara. 1967. A color variant in the Mexican axolotl. Journal of Heredity 58:251-256.

Humphrey, R.R. and H.-M. Chung. 1977. Genetic and experimental studies on three associated mutant genes in the Mexican axolotl: st (for stasis), mi (for microphthalmic) and h (for hand lethal). Journal of Experimental Zoology 202:195-202.

Humphrey, R.R. and H.-M. Chung. 1978. Experimental studies on two mutant genes, r and x, in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Developmental Biology 62:34-43.

Humphrey, R.R., G.M. Malacinski, and H.-M. Chung. 1978. Developmental studies on an apparent cell-lethal mutant gene--ut--in the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. Cell Differentiation 7:47-59.

Ide, C.F. 1978. Genetic dissection of cerebellar development: mutations affecting cell position. American Zoologist 18:281-287.

Ide, C.F. and R. Tompkins. 1975. Development of locomotor behavior in wild type and spastic (sp/sp) axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum. Journal of Experimental Zoology 194:467-478.

Kulikowski, R.R. and F.J. Manasek. 1978. The cardiac lethal mutant of Ambystoma mexicanum: a re-examination. American Zoologist 18:349-358.

La France, S. and L.F. Lemanski. 1994. Immunofluorescent confocal analysis of tropomyosin in developing hearts of normal and cardiac mutant axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 38:695-700.

Lemanski, L.F. and T.P. Fitzharris. 1989. Analysis of the endocardium and cardiac jelly in truncal development in the cardiac lethal mutant axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. Journal of Morphology 200:123-130.

Lofberg, J., H.H. Epperlein, R. Perris, and M. Stigson. 1989a. Neural crest cell migration: a pictorial essay. In: Developmental Biology of the Axolotl. eds. J.B. Armstrong and G.M. Malacinski. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 83-101.

Lofberg, J., R. Perris, and H.H. Epperlein. 1989b. Timing in the regulation of neural crest cell migration: retarded "maturation" of regional extracellular matrix inhibits pigment cell migration in embryos of the white axolotl mutant. Developmental Biology 131:168-181.

Maccagnan, T.J. and L.E. Muske. 1992. Abnormal development of GnRH neuronal systems in the sterile eyeless mutant axolotl. Society for Neuroscience Meetings (Abstract).

Malacinski, G.M. 1978. The Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum: Its biology and developmental genetics, and its autonomous cell-lethal genes. American Zoologist 18:195-206.

Malacinski, G.M. 1989. Developmental Genetics. In: J.B. Armstrong and G.M. Malacinski, eds., Developmental Biology of the Axolotl. Oxford, New York. pp. 102-109.

Mescher, A.L. 1993. Development and regeneration of limbs in the short toes axolotl mutant. In: Limb Development and Evololution. Wiley-Liss, Inc. pp. 181-191.

Neff, A.W., F. Briggs, and H.-M. Chung. 1987. Craniofacial development mutant pi (pinhead) in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) which exhibits reduced interocular distance. Journal of experimental zoology 241:309-316.

Newth, D.R. 1960. Black axolotl, and white. American Scientist 48:300-310. Go back to gene d.Raff, E.C., A.J. Brothers, and R.A. Raff. 1976. Microtubule assembly mutant. Nature 260:(5552) 615-617.

Sawada, S.R. and H.C. Dalton. 1979. Role of neural crest in determining the numbers of pigment cells in the melanoid mutant of Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw. J. Exp. Zool. 207:283-288.

Signoret, J. 1965. Etude des chromosomes de la blastula chez l'axolotl. Chromosoma 17:328-335.

Smith, S.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1990. Heart induction in wild-type and cardiac mutant axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum). J. Exp. Zool. 254:48-54.

Smith, S.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1991. Heart development in normal and cardiac-lethal mutant axolotls: A model for the control of vertebrate cardiogenesis. Differentiation 47:129-134.

Smith, S.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1993a. Reaction-diffusion control of heart development: evidence for activation and inhibition in precardiac mesoderm. Developmental Biology 160:535-542.

Smith, S.C. and J.B. Armstrong. 1993b. Pleiotropic effects of the cardiac-lethal gene in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Developmental Genetics 14:385-392.

Thibaudeau, G. and S.K. Frost-Mason. 1992. Inhibition of neural crest cell differentiation by embryo ectodermal extract. Journal of Experimental Zoology 261:431-440.

Thorsteinsdottir, S. and S.K. Frost. 1986. Pigment cell differentiation: the relationship between pterin content, allopurinol treatment, and the melanoid gene in axolotls. Cell Differentiation 19:161-172.

Tompkins, R. 1970. Biochemical effects of the gene g on the development of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. Developmental Biology 22:59-83.

Tompkins, R. 1978. Genic control of axolotl metamorphosis. American Zoologist 18:313-319.

Trottier, T.M. and J.B. Armstrong. 1977. Experimental studies on a mutant gene (p) causing premature death of Ambystoma mexicanum embryos. J. Embryo. exp. Morph. 39:139-149.

Tsonis, P.A., K. Del Rio-Tsonis, and C.H. Washabaugh. 1993. Analysis of the mutant axolotl short toes. In: Limb Development and Regeneration. Wiley-Liss, Inc. pp. 171-179.

Van Deusen, E. 1973. Experimental studies on a mutant gene (e) preventing the differentiation of eye and normal hypothalmus primordia in the axolotl. Developmental Biology 34:135-158.

 

Fun Facts

What tissues can salamanders regenerate? 

A salamander can regenerate any of its limbs, its tail, parts of its brain and spinal cord,

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